Laws, Regulations & Annotations

Property Taxes Law Guide – Revision 2017

Property Tax Rules

Title 18, Public Revenues California Code of Regulations


Chapter 1. Valuation Principles and Procedures (1–100)

Rule 8

Rule 8. The Income Approach to Value.

Reference: Sections 110, 401, Revenue and Taxation Code.

(a) The income approach to value is used in conjunction with other approaches when the property under appraisal is typically purchased in anticipation of a money income and either has an established income stream or can be attributed a real or hypothetical income stream by comparison with other properties. It is the preferred approach for the appraisal of land when reliable sales data for comparable properties are not available. It is the preferred approach for the appraisal of improved real properties and personal properties when reliable sales data are not available and the cost approaches are unreliable because the reproducible property has suffered considerable physical depreciation, functional obsolescence or economic obsolescence, is a substantial over- or underimprovement, is misplaced, or is subject to legal restrictions on income that are unrelated to cost.

(b) Using the income approach, an appraiser values an income property by computing the present worth of a future income stream. This present worth depends upon the size, shape, and duration of the estimated stream and upon the capitalization rate at which future income is discounted to its present worth. Ideally, the income stream is divided into annual segments and the present worth of the total income stream is the algebraic sum (negative items subtracted from positive items) of the present worths of the several segments. In practical application, the stream is usually either

(1) divided into longer segments, such as the estimated economic life of the improvements and all time thereafter or the estimated economic life of the improvements and the year in which the improvements are scrapped and the land is sold, or

(2) divided horizontally by projecting a perpetual income for land and an income for the economic life of the improvements, or

(3) projected as a level perpetual flow.

(c) The amount to be capitalized is the net return which a reasonably well informed owner and reasonably well informed buyers may anticipate on the valuation date that the taxable property existing on that date will yield under prudent management and subject to such legally enforceable restrictions as such persons may foresee as of that date. Net return, in this context, is the difference between gross return and gross outgo. Gross return means any money or money's worth which the property will yield over and above vacancy and collection losses, including ordinary income, return of capital, and the total proceeds from sales of all or part of the property. Gross outgo means any outlay of money or money's worth, including current expenses and capital expenditures (or annual allowances therefor) required to develop and maintain the estimated income. Gross outgo does not include amortization, depreciation, or depletion charges, debt retirement, interest on funds invested in the property, or rents and royalties payable by the assessee for use of the property. Property taxes, corporation net income taxes, and corporation franchise taxes measured by net income are also excluded from gross outgo.

(d) In valuing property encumbered by a lease, the net income to be capitalized is the amount the property would yield were it not so encumbered, whether this amount exceeds or falls short of the contract rent and whether the lessor or the lessee has agreed to pay the property tax.

(e) Recently derived income and recently negotiated rents or royalties (plus any taxes paid on the property by the lessee) of the subject property and comparable properties should be used in estimating the future income if, in the opinion of the appraiser, they are reasonably indicative of the income the property will produce in its highest and best use under prudent management. Income derived from rental of properties is preferred to income derived from their operation since income derived from operation is the more likely to be influenced by managerial skills and may arise in part from nontaxable property or other sources. When income from operating a property is used, sufficient income shall be excluded to provide a return on working capital and other nontaxable operating assets and to compensate unpaid or underpaid management.

(f) When the appraised value is to be used to arrive at an assessed value, the capitalization rate is to include a property tax component, where applicable, equal to the estimated future tax rate for the area times the assessment ratio.

(g) The capitalization rate may be developed by either of two means:

(1) By comparing the net incomes that could reasonably have been anticipated from recently sold comparable properties with their sales prices, adjusted, if necessary, to cash equivalents (the market-derived rate). This method of deriving a capitalization rate is preferred when the required sales prices and incomes are available. When the comparable properties have similar capital gains prospects, the derived rate already includes a capital gain (or loss) allowance and the income to be capitalized should not include such a gain (or loss) at the terminus of the income estimate.

(2) By deriving a weighted average of the capitalization rates for debt and for equity capital appropriate to the California money markets (the band-of-investment method) and adding increments for expenses that are excluded from outgo because they are based on the value that is being sought or the income that is being capitalized. The appraiser shall weight the rates for debt and equity capital by the respective amounts of such capital he deems most likely to be employed by prospective purchasers.

(h) Income may be capitalized by the use of gross income, gross rent, or gross production multipliers derived by comparing sales prices of closely comparable properties (adjusted, if necessary, to cash equivalents) with their gross incomes, gross rents, or gross production.

(i) The provisions of this rule are not applicable to lands defined as open-space lands by Chapter 1711, Statutes of 1967, nor are they applicable in all respects to possessory interests.

History: Adopted December 12, 1967, effective January 18, 1968.

Amended December 15, 1976, effective January 21, 1977.

Amended September 27, 1977, effective November 25, 1977.

Amended July 27, 1982, effective December 30, 1982.